John Baker, Hugh Baker, John Baker
Elizabeth Baker, the wife of John Baker who died in 1714 was for many years an enigma. I speculated on various possibilities but was never satisfied that I had it figured out. In fact, I was concerned that there were historical things happening in Gargatha that we have long lost, and I tried to speculate in a novel, which gave me more freedom to let my mind roam. Without a doubt, there was a great deal of commercial liaison with Saint Marys City, and I figured that Gargatha had something to do with the logistical support of Baltimore Hundred, Lord Baltimore’s attempt to establish the territory that became lower Delaware. I came across an entry for the Butler family of Virginia, and it indicated that Elizabeth Butler[i] married John Baker. I began to study this possibility in detail. The time period was appropriate as John Baker of Gargatha also died in 1714, just as brother-in-law Thomas Butler.
When William Claiborn, who had married his sister, Elizabeth Butler, began to develop Kent Island Plantation, Thomas Butler and his brother John Butler joined Claiborn there. Thomas held 100 acres and paid a yearly rent of two barrels of corn and two capons. John Butler was arrested by Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore for treason and threatened with hanging in 1638. In 1644 Thomas Butler, along with many other Maryland Protestants, refused to pay taxes to the Catholic government and was declared an enemy of state. Soon after, Thomas Butler died, apparently of natural causes. His widow married a merchant, Edward Thompson (B1617), and they, along with the Butler children "escaped" south to the Virginia colony about 1650, eventually settling in Westmoreland County.
Another person who was on the delinquent tax list at Kent Island was Hangate Baker, who was listed as a freeman but had come to Kent Island in 1635 as a headright of Garrett Andrews, son of Captain William Andrews of Old Plantation Creek who had helped Claiborne tame Kent Island in the last part of the 1620s. Even Hangate[ii] (Hungate) Baker had ties to Admiral William Wynter, which we detailed in the footnote.
We looked back one generation, to the parents of haberdasher Thomas Butler and it brought us to Kent Island, the settlement established on the Eastern Shore in 1634. It was men from the lower tip of the Eastern Shore of Virginia who did the majority of work late in the 1620s to establish the plantation of Kent Island.
The Harris connection was important, although descendants cannot agree on the exact genealogy, it does show that the Harris, Butler, and Claiborne families were interconnected.
The Throckmorton connection was important because it linked us back to Lady dale, wife of Governor Thomas Dale. Her ancestor, Under Treasurer of England, Sir John Throckmorton, of Fladbury in Worcestershire, England, was the custodian of the estate of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick and the overseer of the will of Ralph Butler, Lord Sudley.
But the most important family was that of Admiral William Wynter because he was related by marriage to Customer Thomas Smythe whose son, along with brother-in-law, William Throckmorton, were named as overseers in the will of Governor Dale. Edward Wynter, son of the admiral owned property in Bletsoe by 1607, although he resided near Saint Briavels Castle.
When you look at the complete picture, it is impressive:
John Beauchamp, 3rd Baron Beauchamp, Bletsoe
| Margaret Beauchamp = Oliver Saint John of Penmark= (2) John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset
| John Saint John | Oliver Saint John | Margaret Beaufort = Edmund Tudor
| John Saint John | John Saint John | Henry VII Wm Butler
| John Saint John = Anne Neville | Nicholas Saint John | Henry VIII George Butler|
| Oliver Saint John | Margaret Saint John = Francis Russell, 2nd Earl Bedford | Cressit Saint John = John Butler |
| Nathaniel Butler, Bermuda | John Butler= Jane Elloyt
| Eliz Butler = Col Wm Claiborne John Butler, Kent Island | | Thomas Butler = Joan Mountstephen
| Mary Claiborne = Robert Harris, s/o Thomas Harris | Thomas Butler | Elizabeth Butler = John Baker
John Baker (1653-1714) was probably forty years of age before he purchased 400 acres in 1694, land known as GARGATHY Branch and GARGATHA Plantation. Gargatha was a very important commercial center in the development of the Eastern Shore. Today, it is but a small crossroads on Route 13 located just a few miles north of Accomack, in Accomack County.
We have no idea where John Baker spent his first forty years, but feel that he may have spent a portion in Saint Marys City, Maryland. It appears that he was in Northampton after the death of his father and was reflected in the records in 1664, and John Baker was definitely still in Northampton County in 1668 when Jacob Bishop signed a document claiming responsibility for him, his brother William Baker, and their two sisters. In fact, we believe that John Baker spent time in Somerset County and Sussex County as John Barker in the 1680s prior to returning to Accomack County in retirement in 1694/1695.
In 1695, a John Barker was involved in a contract to purchase 300 acres of the same major area but that apparently was never finalized, then the area was sometimes called BARKERS NECK. Then there were several head rights claimed for a John and Jonathan Baker in this area: Jonathan Baker was the Northampton headright for Richard Whitemarsh in 1669, who was a neighbor that year of Thomas Hunt on Old Plantation Creek in Northampton, and Clarke and Hunt were mentioned as friends to uncles, Edward and Daniel Baker. Twelve years later, Jonathon Baker was again a headright in Accomack of Thomas Hunt and George Clark in 1681. This writer speculates that it was the transportation of this Jonathan Baker from another part of the Chesapeake region to Hogg Island that accounts for the movement of John Baker to Accomack County.
John Baker purchased LITTLE GARGAPHIA from in 1694. Parker had intended to leave the property to his son Matthew, but Matthew died sometime between 1693 -1695 and it apparently reverted to brother Robert Parker. John Parker died in 1695. If John Baker did marry Elizabeth Mason[v] as his second wife, she was the widow of Robert Parker[vi] (D1696) and this would explain the land purchased at this time. Since John Baker purchased 400 acres near Gargatha Plantation in 1694; and his older brother, William Baker, purchased 600 acres of Dale Plantation in 1696; both brothers must have received some type of inheritance from the Baker side of their family. Uncles Daniel and Edward Baker were dead. Had relatives from the western shore left them an inheritance? Stepfather Jacob Bishop[vii] died in 1695. It is also reasonable to assume that it could have been their aunt Susanna Baker as she must have been at her death in 1679 one of the largest landowners on the Eastern Shore.
Captain Daniel Jennifer, the tavern keeper who sold his business to John Baker in Saint Marys, was also the attorney for his friend John Baker who became sheriff of Saint Marys. Jennifer then claimed head rights for 34 people on April 4, 1678 in Accomack adjacent to Col. William Kendall (wife Susanna Baker) in Muddy Creek. A Jonathan Barker was one of these persons and he is listed two years later as an Accomack titable in 1680, and the following year there were two Jonathan Barkers listed in the tithables. One of the other was probably the same Jonathan Barker who had a portion of Daniel Jennifer's Gargaphy Plantation surveyed in 1695, but that sale seems not to have taken place. Immediately after, a John Baker purchased another portion of Daniel Jennifer's Gargaphy land called "Bakers Farm" from John Parker in 1694/5.
On September 28, 1681, Thomas Hunt, George Clarke, Edmund Bibby all patented land on one of the small islands (Hogg Island) in Accomack. George Clarke was mentioned as a friend in the will of Edward Baker, Thomas Hunt and Edmund Bibby were possibly brothers in law. They claimed 44 head rights, and these included names we find in the Baker research like William Taylor, George Griffin, and Jonathan Patrick, and Richard Bayly who in 1649, was granted 700 acres on Cradicks Creek, (Cradock Creek in lower Accomac County) adjacent to Edmond Scarborough on September 15, 1649 for fourteen persons including the eleven above. The fourteen were: Elizabeth Lacy, Edward Tripp, Phillip Landford, John Butcher, James Wren, Henry Wood (Weed), Frauncis White, William Wheeler, Hangatt Baker, Thomas Bournham, William Howes, Elizabeth Wheatley, Lydia Wheatley, and Ambrose Dixon.
It is also important to note the names Parker, Waters, and Devoreau Brown. This property was purchased from a John Parker (D1695). Parker owned quite a few properties, but his home place was known as MATTAPANY, which probably derived from Maggoty Bay where Dale Plantation and William Baker were located. John Parker was related to George Parker who first patented land in 1650 in Onancock adjacent to William Waters and served with Devoreau Brown as a county official. Waters had been tied to other family wills, and married the widow of George Clarke just mentioned above. George Parker, who we think had been an attorney in Saint Marys City, patented "Gaggathy Inlet" in 1682 next to Daniel Jennifer. Jennifer sold his interest in the only tavern in Saint Marys City to a John baker before coming to Accomack. Several of John Parker's children and grandchildren settled in Delaware in Sussex County, and we even have one record of his son Anderson Parker selling property to Baker descendants. So the stage was already set for future Baker children to migrate into Worcester County and Sussex County.
There seemed to be little surviving information on John Baker leading this writer to speculate that he also served as a mariner like his uncles, possibly his father. This also explained the multiple head rights. We are somewhat intrigued by an assignment of land in 1683 by Captain Richard Hill (D1694) to Jonathan Baker in Ann Arundel County. Hill had been a head right of Rev. William Cotton who had married Governor William Stone's daughter, had been involved in a will in St. Marys County with an Isaac Baker, and Quaker John Drummond (1636-1714) of Muddy Creek in Accomack married his daughter, Patience. Captain Richard Hill had married Mary Drake, daughter of Robert Drake, neighbor of Colonel Nathaniel Littleton’s trading post in Accomac. Drake had been a soldier, and we believe was the grandson, or grandnephew of Francis Drake. Patience’s first husband was Christopher Thompson, son of Edward Thompson, who married the widow of Thomas Butler, haberdasher, of Kent Island.
It was probably tavern owner John Baker who was assigned 200 acres called BROAD NECK in St. Marys by Robert Mason in 1681. Mason's father had been a 1642 head right on the Rappahannock River to Puritan Daniel Gookin[viii].
It was probably Gargatha’s John Baker /Barker who patented four hundred acres of FENWICKS CHOICE[ix] by right of Thomas Fenwick, son of Cultbert Fenwick of Saint Marys, in April 1685 which he then assigned to Woodman Stockley[x] of Gargatha. Woodman was a cousin to Elizabeth Mason and Robert Parker, and possibly explains the migration of Bakers in Sussex County and Somerset County. Woodman Stockley registered Jane as his wife in his will, and we can only guess if this may be Jane Baker, daughter of John Baker. John Baker was probably previously married before if he married Elizabeth Mason Parker. Baker's stepchildren by Robert Parker settled in St. Martens River. Perhaps Baker sold his Sussex land and this is what gave him the funds to purchase land in Gargatha. Witnesses to Woodman's will were son Woodman Stockley, John Stockley, Rhoda Stockley, and Jacob Morris, and he left Jacob Morris FENWICKS CHOICE. Jacob Morris was the brother of Cornelius who purchased the old ship, “Africa”, used by Captain Henry Fleet. Once inside the barrier islands, travel by water almost all the way to Indian River[xi] was quite easy, and John Townsend Jr. sold the ship AFRICA, which Claiborne had used to take supplies to Kent Island, to Cornelius Morris who died intestate in Kent County, Delaware. John Townsend Sr. had claimed head rights for an Alice Baker in 1641 in Northampton. Captain Henry Fleet, an inhabitant of Northampton, St. Mary's City, and the upper James River sailed the AFRICA in 1632 when he was sent by Clobery & Company to help the Virginians at Kent Island.
Woodman Stockley settled at St. George's Episcopal near Lewes, Del. In 1724, William Baker witnessed the will of Ann Morris in Accomack. This Morris connection to the Bakers is quite exciting.
A brother may have been Captain Roger Baker / Barker[xii] of Saint Marys who had property in Accomac before his death in 1676.
John Baker wrote his will in 1712 and died in 1714, and left 100 acres to his wife, which was then to pass to son John Jr. Richard Kitson was a witness to John Baker's will. The reader may remember that it was Jacob Bishop who purchased what was later to be known as Baker Farm from a Thomas Kitson of England.
The remaining 300 acres of GARGATHA Plantation was inherited by his son
and heir-in-law, William Baker.
Based on what we know about the others around Gargathy in the late 1600s, John Baker most certainly would have been a Quaker, and we think adopted the name Barker for conducting business until he retired. Please read about the Quaker Movement later in this section.
The Gargathy Properties:
The following property helps us better understand the development of the family.
Accomack Whitelaw 114 - This was property that came only briefly into the Baker family, but it is most interesting to the development of the clan. Thomas Mills and Thomas Bagwell each purchased a portion of this property in 1689 from William Jarman. It was located on the south head branch of Guilford Creek. Thomas Mills sold his half to brother Edward Mills in 1705, and Edward left to his daughters in 1712. Esther Mills (husband Jacob Shepard) and Elizabeth Mills (husband William Baker (D1772)) united in a deed and sold this land to Mack Williams Wright and his wife Elizabeth who apparently was related to the family. [Elizabeth Baker held 225 acres of A114 with her sister Ester and Jacob Shepard. She had inherited this in 1712. Her portion of A114 was 112.5 acres. William and Elizabeth Baker joined with Ester and Jacob Shepard to sell A114 in 1731 to Mack Williams Wright.]
Accomack Whitelaw 121 - The first patent for this property was in 1663 to Edmund Scarborough for 1,450 acres of a neck bounded on the southern side by Arcadia Creek, and on the northern side by the Gargatha Creek, and the seaboard on the east, known as White’s Neck. We should remember that Scarborough was married to Mary Potts, sister-in-law of Susanna Baker. In 1664, Scarburgh received another 1,400 acres which was north of the first patent and bounded by Assawoman Creek on the north side, and Arathusa Creek on the south. Today, this is called Hog Neck Creek. Scarburgh sold 1,200 acres to his mistress, Anne Toft, and she renamed it Gargathy Neck Creek. Old "Gargaphe Creek" is now Kegotank Creek. Upon Scarborough’s death, AnneToft remarried Daniel Jennifer in 1671 who was first issued the patent for Assateaque Island. The Jennifers then went on to become the largest landowners holding an excess of twenty properties in Accomack County alone. Elizabeth Mills Baker owned 150 acres of A121, which she also had inherited in 1712 from her father. In 1774, Elizabeth conveyed this to her son John Baker, with instructions to pass it along to grandson George upon John's death. This was a parcel of land lying at the head of Kickatank Creek bounded by Robert James, John Wimbrough, and John Shepard's heirs. At that time, it was still a 150 acre parcel.
Daniel Jennifer sold 250 acres to John Onions, which was east of the present old highway very near the road to Wallops Island. In 1716, John Onions left 100 acres to his sons, Thomas and Selby Onions. Selby Onions left the land to his son in 1752 who was then living in Worcester County. Afterward, Selby's son sold his inheritance to Giles Copes. Giles left this land to his son Joshua in 1767, and Joshua left it to his children in 1778. Daughter Nancy (Copes) inherited 45 acres. Nancy was married to Daniel Baker. This general area was also the site of the Second Middle Church which is now located behind the Woodbury Methodist Church.
Another nearby section of 1,400 acres in the original patent to the Jennifers was called Gargaphia Plantation. This was very near the seaside. For over one hundred years, a road by the name of "Gargaphia Road" went from Puncoteaque, through Onley, to Drummondtown, and then to the present Zion Church. This area is now called Gargatha Neck. The road passes the old house, which has since been renamed Sunderland Farm, Kelley Farm, and Baker Farm.
In the general area of the highway running through Gargatha, Va. is part of the original patent to Daniel Jennifer. A portion of this land was left to Keziah (Baker) Thorp, wife of Jonathan Thorp. Keziah was the daughter of William and Mary Baker, and they had received this land in patents from his parents, William and Elizabeth Baker.
Accomack Whitelaw 122 - Originally patented by John Parker in 1672, sits on the east side of the existing highway and south of Rue Crossroads. It was named "Little Gargaphia" by Parker. In 1694, 400 acres of this property was purchased by John Baker and his wife Elizabeth. John Baker died in 1714, and left 100 acres to Elizabeth and 300 acres to son John baker. He still had another 300 acres, which was inherited by his heir-in-law, William Baker.
John Baker (1653-1714) = Elizabeth of Gargatha William Nock (D1738) Thomas Bell
| Comfort = Joseph Bell (D1759) | Anne= John Nock | Elizabeth | Lishea | Mary = (?) Woodman Bloxom Sr | John Baker = Mary Bell
| Mary Bell[xiii] = Woodman Bloxom Jr | Anne | Comfort Nock = (?) Hugh Baker
| Jacob Bloxom, | Rachael Bloxom, | Joshua Bloxom, | Margaret Bloxom, | Severn Bloxom.
John Baker Jr. (D1730) or possibly "Jonathan" Baker must have been a character. We believe he married Mary Bell, daughter of Thomas Bell. Jonathan and Mary Baker executed the will of Quaker Benjamin Coe in 1724. Mary Justice had been married to Benjamin Coe and they had a daughter named Sarah Coe (B1700). Benjamin Coe and Mary had descendants living in the St. Martens area of Worcester. In 1724, Jonathan Baker was fined for swearing two profane public oaths; and in 1726, Ralph Justice had to order Jonathan Baker to keep the peace. In that same year, Captain Richard Drummond heard the complaint of Matilda Lewis about Mary Baker, wife of Jonathan. Apparently both Jonathan Baker and Mary Baker had been charged with the same offense. In 1730, a John Baker was the witness to the will of Ann Drummond, widow of Richard Drummond Sr. (D1720).
On December 6, 1732, a Jonathan Baker came to court to swear that Sarah Coe had died without a will. Who was this Jonathan Baker? He also was a witness to the will of Ann Drummond in 1733. Again, this indicates that there may have been an additional brother or cousin, Jonathan Baker. We believe that this Jonathan Baker was the posthumous son born in 1700 at the time of brother William Baker's death, or the son of Thomas Baker who settled just a few miles up the road in Maryland. John and Mary had three children before his death in 1730.
On December 12, 1730, William Baker came to court to declare that John Baker had died without a will, and the court appointed him administrator of John's estate. Richard Kitson, Griffith Savage, Bartholomew Mears; Jr., and Joseph Bell were appointed to appraise the estate. Apparently, John's wife had died because his children were handled in Orphan's Court. These children were Elizabeth, Rachael, and John Baker Jr.
Daughter Comfort Baker married Joseph Bell (D1759). Joseph Bell was the son of Thomas Bell and Barbara Robins Wise of Northampton and Accomac County, already a Virginian since grandfather Thomas Bell of Northampton and his wife Mary Neale, daughter of John Neale who built several of the ships for Kent Island.
Mary Bell married Woodman Bloxom Jr. who received an inheritance of 53 acres in 1759 from Joseph and Comfort Bell. Mary (Bell) Bloxom must have fallen out with her father Joseph Bell, because in his will which was probated on February 25,1761, he requested that her inheritance be reduced to one shilling. Woodman Bloxom and Mary had the following children:
o | Jacob Bloxom |Rachael Bloxom |Joshua Bloxom |Margaret Bloxom |Severn Bloxom
Anne Bell married John Nock (D1740), carpenter, and it was to them that their nephew, John Baker III was sent as an orphan. John Nock was to teach John Baker the trade of carpenter. John Nock was the son of William Nock (D1738), and grandson of William Nock (D1717), blacksmith, and Anne Wadillow who had descended from Nicholas Waddilow. Nicholas had married the daughter of George Parker (W1695). John Baker's grandparents were neighbors of John Barnes. John Nock apparently outlived Anne Bell and remarried a Rose. John Nock and Anne Bell did have at least two sons, Joseph Nock (D1774) and John Nock (wife Rachael). They also had a daughter Comfort Nock who we think married or had a child by her cousin, Hugh Baker. The child by that union was John Baker. She remarried a Mr. Mannering.
Oliver Bell and his wife Elizabeth lived in Accomac, but sold their inheritance of 63 acres to his brother in law, Woodman Bloxom. We believe Elizabeth was probably Elizabeth Bloxom, daughter of Woodman Bloxom Sr.
It is important to note that the family name Bell and Bloxom continue to surface in the Baker family in Whaleyville in Worcester County, Maryland, and in Sussex County, Delaware for the next 100 years.
Son William Baker was John Baker's heir-in-law and most likely oldest son. He inherited 300 acres from his father's estate in 1714. He was married to Elizabeth Mills (D1774) who was the daughter of Edward Mills and Ann Barnes, the daughter of John Barnes. William and Elizabeth inherited several properties from her father Edward Mills in addition to his inheritance, Gargatha.
Edward Mills (D1712) lived at the head of Back Creek and his parents were Thomas Mills (D1709) and Rebecca Abbott, daughter of John Abbott. John Abbott served at Kent Island in the 1640s, as did Garrett Anderson who claimed a headright for Hangate Baker. Garrett's daughter married John Barnes, grandfather of Ann Barnes.
Edward Mills and Ann had four children:
| Elizabeth = Wm Baker | Ester = Jacob Shepard | Nancy = Wm Freshwater [xv] | Edward Mills.
In 1724, William Baker was named as a witness in the will of Ann Morris. In 1751, William Baker was the witness to the will of Ann Warrington Clemens, and on May 17, 1771, Elizabeth Baker was named as a witness in the will of James Fitzgerald. All of these names are associated with property in Gargatha.
William Baker died in 1772 leaving Elizabeth and their eight sons. Witnesses were Charles Bagwell, John Kitson, and William Fitchell. The original BAKER FARM had been a Kitson property in the time of Baker's father. William Baker deeded his 300 acres (A122) to three sons: Isaiah Baker, Hezekiah Baker, and Salathiel Baker. The remaining five sons received no land, but shared as residuary legatees.
William and Elizabeth's sons:
George Baker, Our Ancestor
William in Maryland
John Baker Junior
Hugh Baker (Died 1790) of Sussex County was living on this exact property in the 1750s and then he reappeared in Sussex County. Hugh Baker was born about 1727. He purchased 106 acres in Accomac from Stephen Clemons in 1752. This property was orignially purchased by Robert Davis who had married the widow of Hugh Baker (D1664) of St. Marys County. Clemons had purchased this property from Joseph Bell, who was married to Comfort Baker; and William Baker of Gargatha had witnessed the will of Anne Clemens in 1751.
Ann Warrington Clemens (W1751) was a widow from Northampton who purchased land at Gargatha in 1741 (A121). Her Witness: John Kitson (s/o Richard Kitson who had been a witness the will of John Baker of Gargatha), William Baker (s/o John Baker). Her children:
| Jane Brook Clemens | Stephen Clemens | Ruth Clemens Underhill
Perhaps Hugh was first married to Mary Bell. Hugh sold this property in that same year, and Hugh moved to Sussex County where he purchased 200 acres in Broadkill in Sussex County that same year. The year before leaving Virginia, Hugh Baker witnessed the marriage of Solomon Truitt of Sussex County to Francis Smith on April 4, 1751. The marriage was recorded in Northampton County indicating that Hugh may have been in Northampton until he purchased the Accomack property, which he subsequently resold.
Researcher Jack Baker suggests that he was the son of John Baker, son of John Baker of Gargatha.
This "Hugh Baker, Yeoman" next appeared in Sussex County on May 2, 1752 purchasing 200 acres of land at the head of the Broadkiln adjacent to land of the Abbotts and William Carpenter from Donald Stewart called STUARTS FOLLY, part of a larger grant in 1740 to Thomas Bayly who reassigned to Stuart. He appears to have been the first Baker to settle in Broadkiln. He had possibly married Mary Bell before 1750, and definitely Mary Turner by 1750. Hugh was a witness to the will of William Abbott in 1773, and a suretie for George Abbott for a £1,000 in 1780 when Abbott was to appear for treason relative to the tension at that time between the colonies and England.
Hugh Baker's will was probated on September 17,1790. His wife was Mary Turner whose will was presented on March 7, 1796. Their children were Sally Baker who was dead by 1790, Betsy Baker (Elgin), and Joshua Baker. Mary Baker's will was executed in 1796 by William Shockley and Betsy Baker (Elgin). She was Mary Turner, daughter of Lazarus Turner of Sussex County, Delaware. Significant research is being done by a descendant, Jack Baker, who we hope will allow us to share or link to his work.
John Barker of Baltimore Hundred, Sussex County
I believe that John Barker and John Baker were one and the same person, and that, although it had probably started as a mistake, John Baker, the Quaker operated business under the name John Barker as it was forbidden for any Quaker to conduct business, and for any other person to conduct business with a known Quaker. Therefore, John Baker operated as John Barker and Garrett Andrews operated as Garrett Anderson, Nicholas Wallop as Nicholas Waddilow, or Dennis Morris operated as Morris Dennis. At the same moment when the Virginia officials were cracking down on the Quakers, the Dutch had a trading post at Lewes, Delaware in 1658, and there was an uneasy period of about fifteen years before the English defeated the Dutch over their presence in North America. Fifty families migrated out of this hostile area during this period back into Virginia and Maryland. When the Quakers were evicted out of Virginia into Maryland, Lord Calvert offered them fifty acres to relocate into Maryland. Names near Littleton’s Indian Trading Camp on the Nandua and nearby Hacks Neck were Edward Baker, Richard Bundwick, Thomas Jones, Nicholas Waddilow, and Edward Southern.
Captain William Jones figured frequently in our research, beginning with William Jones stationed at the first Eastern Shore Plantation with John Baker/ Barker. William Jones came on the same ship as John Baker, the “Ann” in 1623, and Captain William Eppes declared a headright for him shortly after. We believe that William Jones also went to the upper James River just like the other men aboard the Ann, and he probably was the same Jones who married the daughter of Captain Wood who built the fort on the Appomattox River. In 1673, another Captain William Jones patented land in Maryland called “Doncaster” near that of sheriff John Baker of Saint Marys. In that land patent, he claimed a headright for Edward Baker[xvii], the son of the deceased Edward Baker of Hacks Neck. The son of Captain William Jones was Captain Thomas Jones who we first located near Hacks Neck, and was sheriff of Baltimore Hundred in 1671 when he so harassed the Dutch that Dutch officials filed a complaint to English officials in London. It seems that Jones once overtook Dutch in a trading camp, took their furs, and threw their belongings overboard including their clothing, leaving the men tied to a tree.
Captain Thomas Jones married the daughter of neighbor Richard Bundick before he relocated from near Hacks Neck to Gargatha.
Richard Bundick's family: Captain William
| daughter Bundick = Captain Thomas Jones | Jane Bundick = John Jones, Quaker of Little Monie | daughter Bundick = Art Johnson VanKirk
The English Civil War was fought between the King and his gentry, and Parliament whose army was primarily Puritan. The first Puritan settlement in Virginia was called Bennetts plantation and established in 1621 on the Elizabeth River in what would become known as Isle of Wight, Virginia. Isle of Wight, England was the departure point for these Pilgrims. By 1643, at the beginning of the English Civil war, the first Puritan Church was established in Isle of Wight around a community that had grown to perhaps 800 Puritans. The Virginia government, which remained Anglican, started to pressure the Puritans, and some resettled in this period in Accomac between 1643 and 1650. Then, from 1649 to 1651, there was a migration of 120 Puritan families from Isle of Wight, Virginia to Maryland and they settled either in Pautuxent River or Providence (Annapolis).
Meanwhile, the Quaker movement started about 1643, the same year as the English Civil War, and the followers of the “Inner Light” were pacifists. Things started to pick up steam in the period 1648 to 1658 in Virginia, and there were several centers, but the largest and most important was at the mouth of the Nussawatocks around Nondui Creek and Hacks Neck. In the late 1640s and the 1650s, Nussawatocks in Accomac was a thriving Quaker community, and the first Quaker Meeting House, a ten foot by ten foot affair, was thought to have been at Thomas Leatherberry's field in 1657. By 1658, Virginia continued to increase pressure on the Quakers to the point that non-Quakers would be punished if they showed any compassion to Quakers. Some Puritans in the Lynnhaven area near Norfolk, resettled near Nussawatocks, perhaps expecting less pressure on the fringe boundary of the then settlement. More political pressure brought more filtering of Quakers into Maryland in the late 1650s.
Generally, the Quakers were generally quite well to do families of the merchant class. They were not religious radicals, but simply wanted to pray directly to God without a religious person between them. Their negative was the fact that they refused to fight which was an irritant to their neighbors who relied on a local militia for defense. Several were killed or executed in Boston and Virginia for their beliefs. In 1662, things hit the breaking point - Quakers basically became non-citizens in Virginia. Simultaneous to this action, Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, had arrived in America and made the first trip to the Eastern Shore where he saw the opportunity to offer safe haven to the Quakers and have settlers claim land along the Virginia / Maryland border. Calvert was under pressure from the King to begin to develop the Eastern Shore of Maryland and begin to send those taxes on improved land back to England. That year, a large number of Quakers around Nussawatocks petitioned Lord Calvert to move to Maryland where they could follow their religion. Maryland's Governor made land south of the Choptank available to the Quakers and a large contingent relocated, as did a large group of more liberal Protestants.
The following year, an entire community of Quakers were eradicated from Merchants Hope and the refugees and made their way to Maryland. Virginia had made it illegal for ship captains to transport Quakers into or out of Virginia, so many arranged passage to Northern Neck Virginia where at night they made their way across the Potomac River into Maryland. Many of the 1662 and 1663 land patents in Northumberland, Virginia are based on the movement of Quakers from lower Virginia to Maryland via Northumberland.
In 1683, Lord Calvert ordered his soldiers to open Baltimore Hundred, and many of the refugees found their way into that new territory. It should be noted that after being pushed around for three or four decades, some were carrying muskets and slipping on pacifism. The Calverts lost power in the late 1680s, and King William insisted that both Virginia and Maryland follow Church of England doctrine. Dome converted, others found sanctuary in William Penn's Pennsylvania. Some second generation Quakers returned to the Anglican faith, while others embraced Presbyterian which was then just beginning to develop in Somerset County, Maryland.
For years I assumed that the differences in the spellings of names was a simple case of misspellings, but now have concluded that names were intentionally changed by the Quakers to continue business. It was illegal for a Virginian to do business with a Quaker and they could suffer great penalty, losing their assets and going to prison. The proof of that illegal activity would be their signed legal documents, so Nicholas Wallop was Nicholas Waddilow, or John Baker was John Barker, John Eyre was John Ayers, Morris Dennis was Dennis Morris, and Garrett Andrews was Garrett Anderson. In Wallop's case, it probably had much more to do with the Wallop family's involvement in the English Civil War, but it makes a good example of the point I am trying to make.
We have noted a very large number of the original settlers of Somerset County were Quakers who had been neighbors near Nussawatocks and Hacks Neck who resettled with Calvert’s approval about 1662 when Virginia made it illegal for Quakers to worship. Simultaneous to this action, Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore, had arrived in America and made the first trip to the Eastern Shore. Calvert saw the opportunity to offer safe haven to the Quakers and have settlers claim land along the Virginia / Maryland border in one single action.
Of the fifteen, original settlers of Old Somerset in Maryland, eleven had been neighbors at Nussawattocks in a period when it was the foremost Quaker settlement in the North America. One of the major landowners and Quakers was Nicholas Waddilow who with Stephen Horsey claimed 400 acres in Northampton on July 13, 1647 at Dawes Creek for eight headrights including Edward Southern, and himself, Nicholas Waddilow. A few years later, Stephan Horsey and Randall Revell (his 2nd wife was Quaker Katherine Scarborough, daughter of Edmund Scarborough) patented DOUBLE PURCHASE, which was located on both sides of the Maryland/Virginia line and inhabited by Quakers. Horsey's will was administered in Somerset County, Maryland by Alexander Draper, who had also been declared a headright, immigrated into Somerset County in 1663, and appeared in land transactions near Lewes in Sussex with Edward Southern. In 1649, Richard Bayly claimed headrights here for 14 persons including Hangate Baker and Ambrose Dixon. Hangate Baker had refused to pay taxes to Maryland authorities back in 1644 and had returned to this community. This land was adjacent to Quaker John Robinson and Nicholas Waddilow. The Maryland Puritan leader, Francis Yeardley, son of Governor George Yeardley, relocated from Lynnhaven and claimed headrights for land in this immediate area in 1653 before he moved on to become a Puritan leader in Maryland from 1656 to 1661. William Coulbourne was living adjacent to the Francis Yeardley land in 1652 near Hacks Neck and adjacent to the land of Nicholas Waddilow. William Bosman lived on the adjacent property in 1663, the year the Quakers moved as a group to Somerset County. John White has a name too common to track, although there was a John White on the Francis Yeardley property at Hacks Neck. In 1652, Ambrose Dixon and Stephen Horsey claimed headrights, adjacent to the Nicholas Waddilow land. By 1654, Edward Revell, son of Randall Revell, was adjacent to Anthony Hoskins land on southside of the Puncoteaque. By 1652, John Elzey was also at Occahannock adjacent to the Waddilow land, and William Thorne was a neighbor at Occahannock. Thomas Johnson was on the Nicholas Waddilow land, now owned by Quaker Tim Coe. James Jones, brother of Captain Thomas Jones, sons of Captain William Jones lived in the immediate area. Their father sailed aboard a ship from the port of Hacks Neck with others later identified as Quakers. James Jones was reported from Monmouthshire, Wales and in conflict with authorities there for his Quaker views. William Stevens is probably the boatright from the same area named in the same will as Captain William Jones aboard ship from London to Virginia. Quakers with recorded fines in Virginia were Thomas Mears, Woodman Stockley, Ralph Harris, Robert Harwood and William Berry. Nicholas Waddilow whose name appears in so many transactions as a neighbor left Hacks Neck in 1658 and entered Maryland with his wife, three daughters, and thirteen servants before he died in 1659. Eventually, his son, who continued developing land, began once again adopt the name, John Wallop. In Gargatha, John Barker had land surveyed, and John Baker later purchased it that same year.
Lord Calvert had to get the Quakers off of the western shore of
Maryland where he had invited them. While Calvert was still in England, there
was an important battle in Maryland, the first where English fought
English. In 1655, the Battle of the
Severn ended with the Maryland Puritans defeating Calvert’s militia, composed
of Catholic and Anglicans. Some thirty
to fifty were slaughtered on the water’s edge near Annapolis, and perhaps a
hundred prisoners were held prisoner and their lands confiscated. There were no
records kept by the Puritans who had learned the power of the press and were
controlling what was reported. For the next six years, the Puritans persecuted
any other religion and were the blackest years in Maryland’s history. Besides
disliking the Quakers for religious reasons, the fact that they would not fight
was a major irritant as Indian raids were still a major danger. Eventually, Lord Cromwell did orchestrate an
agreement between Lord Baltimore (Catholic) and the Puritans because he wanted the
Catholic support in England. After Cromwell's death and Charles II came to
power, the Puritan movement lost momentum.
Be sure to read about the Quaker settlement and Richard Baker at Merchants Hope.
[i] Another possibility is that John Baker married Elizabeth Mason, daughter of Robert Mason (D1677) and Temperance Waddilow. Temperance was the daughter of Nicholas Waddilow and Amey Anderson (W/O Garrett Anderson) who was now married to Thomas Fowkes. Her sister was Amey Mason and she married John Abbott. Elizabeth would have been his cousin, which was most likely. John Abbott had served at Kent Island under William Claiborne and was there with Nicholas Brown, Hangate Baker, and Roger Baker. Roger Baker (Backster) of Kent Island in 1630s was even declared a head right of Claiborne in 1656. The Abbots were to also become landowners at Gargatha, Virginia. It would have been brother-in-law Robert Mason Jr. who assigned "Broad Neck" to probably this John Baker in 1681. Robert Mason was a head right of Daniel Gookin of the Lynnhaven River in 1642 as was William Shepard. Uncles Edward Baker and Daniel Baker had been in Lynnhaven in this period, and Gookin's son married the widow of Adam Thorogood. A Shepard descendant married the daughter of Edward Mills and claimed her inheritance in this immediate area of this property owned by John Baker. Edward Mills was married to the daughter of Thomas Moor, good friend of uncle Edward Baker who had claimed a Jonathan Baker head right in 1670. Moor and Mills both had been head rights of Col. John Motram of Northumberland in 1663.
[ii] Hangate (Hungate) Baker came to Virginia on the “Assurance” in 1635 with ELIZABETH Baker (B 1615), JOHN Baker (B 1613), MARGARET Baker (B 1596), and LAWRENCE BARKER (B 1609), and that same year, Hangate Baker was listed as an indentured servant of Garrett Andrews at Claiborne’s Kent Island. Garrett was the son of Captain William Andrews who lived on Old Plantation Creek, site of the original “Dales Gift” and was very active in the formation of Kent Island at the end of the early 1620s. Garrett Andrews will later become known in historical records as Garrett Anderson whose stepchildren will marry some of the descendants of the 1st John Baker. Seven years later in 1642, Hangate Baker was listed as a freeman in Kent Island, but delinquent in his taxes.
We found Hangate Baker listed in a number of tobacco payment claims. It appears that there was some discussion that Hangate Baker had transported out of Maryland by January of 1643, and we even found a 1651 note that said that Hangate Baker had an unpaid debt to Richard Hamby who inherited a portion of the Sir Thomas Dale land. It seems that Edward Douglas, Lady Dale’s kinsman who was living on Dale’s old land at the tip of the Eastern Shore and Randall Revell gave testimony that Hangate owed Richard Hamby.
We also found this very interesting information in our research of Governor Dale. Horace Vere, who married Lady Dale’s cousin, fought alongside Governor Dale in the Low Countries and purchased Clearwell Manor from Dale’s nephew, Baynum Throckmorton, son of Lady Dale’s brother, William Throckmorton.
Robert Ford = Dorothy Scheer = Dr. Valentine Dale (d 1589)
| Mary Ford = Thomas Fairfax Thomas Hungate | Dorothy Dale = Sir John North Horace Vere = Mary Tracey.
| Henry Fairfax = Frances Baker | John Fairfax = Mary Hungate | Thomas Fairfax = Anne Vere |
Again, Admiral William Wynter appeared on the radarscope.
Admiral William Wynter
| Mary Wynter = Thomas Baynum, Clearwell Manor
| Cecily Baynum = William Throckmorton ----- Lady Dale = Gov. Thomas Dale
In 1642, a Certificate was granted in Northampton, Virginia to Quaker Henry Weed and eleven others including HANGUT BAGER. The eleven were: Henry Weed, Elizabeth Lacey, Edward Tripp, Phillip Langford, John Boucher, James Wrenn, Henry Weed, Frauncis White, William Wheeler, Hangut Bager, Thomas Burnham, William Houses. Henry Weed died in 1644 and his wife remarried Richard Bayly. This was the same year that Maryland officials forced the Butler family off of Kent Island back into Maryland.
In 1649, Richard Bayly was granted 700 acres on Cradicks Creek, (Cradock Creek in lower Accomac County) on September 15, 1649 for fourteen persons, many known Quakers, including the eleven above. The fourteen were: Elizabeth Lacy, Edward Tripp, Phillip Landford, John Butcher, James Wren, Henry Wood (Weed), Frauncis White, William Wheeler, Hangatt Baker, Thomas Bournham, William Howes, Elizabeth Wheatley, Lydia Wheatley, and Ambrose Dixon. This may have been an example of the original transportation documents being reused by Richard Bayly to claim land.
Henry Weede, possibly the son, was the 1651 headright of William Bacon in Northumberland, on the same day that Edward Cole claimed the adjoining Northumberland property claiming Hangate Baker. Richard Bayly died in 1661, and we later found his son Richard Bayly in Accomac County near some descendants of John Baker (circa 1604- circa 1656). Garrett Anderson ("sometimes Andrews") owned property near the Richard Bayly property.
[iii] A Helena Butler appears to be a sister of John Butler.
| John Drake = Helena Butler
| Robert Drake, settled on Eastern Shore near Nathaniel Littleton with a coat-of-arms similar to Francis Drake
| Jane Drake = John Parremour | Mary Drake = Cap Richard Hill, brother of Robert whose will settled by Issac Baker, 1678
| Richard Hill | Mary Hill = John Eyers | Patience Hill = John Drummond, Gargatha
[iv] This may be an important because in 1670, a Hugh Baker of Northumberland gave testimony that Ann Price was given a gift of land by a Jonathon Baker. Northumberland and Westmoreland are the areas where Hangate Baker and Thomas Butler relocated after the altercation over taxes. Anne Baker Lewellyn, daughter of the first John Baker, was living on Turkey Island. Jonathon Baker, William Baker, as well as Jonathon Price were headrights on Turkey island in 1637.
[v] Lt. Francis Mason of Lynnhaven River
| Robert Mason (W1677) of St. Marys City=
Temperance Waddilow (D/O Nicholas Waddilow = Amey Anderson)
| Elizabeth Mason = Robert Parker (D1694) [Robert Parker mentioned as godson of Robert Mason in 1677 as he was the son of John Parker and Amey Anderson)
| Comfort Parker of St. Martens | William Parker of St. Martens
[vi] Robert Parker was the brother of John Parker and George Parker. George Parker first patented land in 1650 in nearby Onancock, Virginia adjacent to William Waters and served with Devoreau Brown as a county official, both with Old Plantation Creek ties to the Baker family. George Parker was married to the daughter of Colonel Edmund Scarborough (also originally of Old Plantation Creek) who granted this land at Gargatha to his mistress Anne Toft. Waters had been tied to other Baker family wills, and married the widow of George Clarke who patented land near here claiming a headright for John Baker in 1681, and was mentioned as a friend in Edward Baker's will. George Parker patented "Gaggathy Inlet" in 1682 next to Daniel Jennifer. Several of John Parker's children and grandchildren settled in Delaware in Sussex County, and we have one record of his son Anderson Parker selling property to Baker descendants.
[vii] Jacob Bishop (W1695) = Mary Munns Baker (W/O Hugh Baker)
| William Bishop = Amey Nock (D/O John Nock) (1732) | Jacob Bishop (W1756-D1759)= Patience Nock (D/o John Nock)
[viii] Robert Mason was a head right of Daniel Gookin of the Lynnhaven River in 1642 as was William Shepard. Uncles Edward Baker and Daniel Baker had been in Lynnhaven in this period, and Gookin's son married the widow of Adam Thorogood. A Shepard descendant married the daughter of Edward Mills and claimed her inheritance in this immediate area of this property owned by John Baker. Edward Mills was married to the daughter of Thomas Moor, good friend of uncle Edward Baker who had claimed a Jonathan Baker head right in 1670. Moor and Mills both had been head rights of Col. John Motram of Northumberland in 1663.
[ix] In 1722, James Baker sold BAKERS FOLLY on the Nanticoke River, which had been patented by Isaac Baker of St. Marys City and Sunsetting on the Nanticoke, to brothers John Huffington and Thomas Huffington. These were the sons of James Huffington (B1648) and Elizabeth Easton (B1657) who were listed as from Fenwick. James Baker lived along the Nanticoke River, and it was his descendants we believe that we later find in the Broadcreek areas of Delaware. In 1721, James Baker assigned land to Thomas Huffington, and at his death in 1725, a William Baker, George Baker, and John Baker all witnessed his will. It would almost appear that James Baker's daughter married Thomas Huffington, and the witnesses were his brother-in-laws.
[x] John Stockley = Mary Wise, daughter of Colonel John Wise = (2) Wm Anderson whose half sister is Temperance Waddilow whose daughter Elizabeth Mason married Robert Parker of Gargatha
| Woodman Stockley = Jane Baker (?) | John Stockley (D1716) | Anne Stockley = Thomas Bagwell (D1693) | Thomas Stockley= Rhoda Delastrious
| Ann Bagwell = Griffith Savage | Valence Bagwell = Charles Leatherbury | Comfort Bagwell = Perry Leatherbury
[xi] William Burton of Northampton, the first European to make a fair and long lasting treaty with the Native Americans. His land includes Burton Prong and Burton Pond off of Indian River which leads into Chapel Creek where St. George's Episcopal (Woodman Stockley) was a member of the congregation.
| Woolsey Burton
| Joshua Burton = Comfort (Baker?) of John Baker of Northampton
| Mary Burton = William Baker, s/o William Baker of Gargatha
[xii] We haven't resolved Roger Baker / Barker but we suspect him to be a brother of John Baker (1604-1654). Captain Roger Baker (D1676), merchant of England had properties in Virginia and Maryland. Roger had a brother named John Baker (D1675) who lived in St. Mary's City. Roger's daughter Mary married Governor Thomas Johnson (S/O Col. Thomas Johnson). Daniel Baker and Thomas Johnson were both listed as Northampton residents in 1651. Roger Baker and Col. Thomas Johnson both had taxable lands in Accomack in 1674. Roger had a son named Roger who appears to have settled in Accomack. Thomas Johnson became Governor of Maryland but there seems to have been something murky with that marriage. Perhaps, Roger Baker Jr. took the name Barker and came back to Virginia, not Maryland. Jonathan Barker was possibly a cousin as Daniel Jennifer was originally of St. Mary's. Roger Backster at Kent Island with William Claiborne from 1634 to 1636 was probably the same person. Consider also that William Baker (S/O Hugh Baker (D1664) married as his second wife Mary Johnson, sister to Gov. Thomas Johnson and S-I-L to Mary Baker (D/O Roger Baker).
On August 15, 1676, Captain Roger Baker of
Wapping, Middlesex, England with lands in Maryland wrote his will, and he had a
brother named John Baker. Mentioned brother-in-law Abraham Hughes of Echington,
Berkshire. Roger had land in Accomac. Thomas Courtney mentioned in an
administration of the Roger Baker will. He left sister Mary Clark, son Roger
Baker Jr., daughter Honor Baker, and his daughter Mary Baker married Maryland
Governor Thomas Johnson. Caleb Baker executed the will. We think that brother
John Baker may have been sheriff John Baker because he started to acquire his
lands after this Roger Baker will. A century before, Admiral William Wynter was
a business partner with Christopher Baker, son of Thomas Baker of London in
developing the wharf at Wapping.
Sister Mary Clark is interesting. In 1699, a Robert Clark left his will and mentioned wife Mary Clark. Daughter Elizabeth married Richard Jacob, and daughter
[xiii] Mary (Bell) Bloxom must have fallen out with her father Joseph Bell, because in his will which was probated on February 25,1761, he requested that her inheritance be reduced to one shilling.
[xiv] Ann Barnes, daughter of John Barnes and Frances Stockley, granddaughter of John Barnes of St Marys City and his wife, the daughter of Garrett Anderson.
[xv] Son of Matthew Freshwater Jr. (D1778) of Old Plantation Creek
[xvi] Page 133 of the Land Records of Sussex from 1681-1725 by Mary Marshall Brewer
[xvii] William Jones and shipbuilder William Stevens were witnesses to the will of Edward Baker. His son James Jones was reported of Monmouthshire in Wales and a Quaker in trouble with local authorities there. We are not sure if they were aboard the ship of Captain Pitts crossing the Atlantic, or witnesses confirming the signature. Stevens was a brother-in-law to Robert Hutchinson of Hacks Neck, neighbor of George Hack. Devereaux Brown later executed the will of Captain Robert Pitts, aboard whose ship Edward Baker was when he died.